Ethiopia-one of the most fascinating countries in the world, Old beyond all imagination, dates back to the very beginnings of mankind, “LAND OF ORIGIN” offering a wealth of captivating riches, fabulous kingdoms and ancient mysteries. Ethiopia is truly a land of contrasts and extremes; a land of remote and wild places. Besides, Ethiopia is a land of wonder and enchantment, a country with one of the richest histories on the African continent, home to cultured and friendly people who are descended from some of the world’s oldest civilizations. A unique and secluded country never been colonized by a European power, and as a result the people have retained a strong cultural identity and are renowned for their warmth hospitality.
Ethiopia (formerly known as Abyssinia) is located in the east of Africa, commonly known as the Horn of Africa. It covers an area of 1, 1 12,000kmq, twice the area of France, and according to the recent census has an estimated population of 95 million inhabitants with 80 ethnic groups. It is bounded on the northeast by Eritrea and Djibouti, on the east and southeast by Somalia, on the south by Kenya and on the west by Sudan. The Ethiopian landscape is dominated by a volcanic plateau with an average altitude of 2000 meter above sea level, which decreases towards the country’s borders on three sides. The Great Rift Valley which begins at Jordan, Red Sea and traverses long distance all the way the Danakil depression (which contains one of the lowest point on the earth 120 meter below sea levels) continuing towards the south of Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and finally Mozambique. Ethiopia has a very strong cultural identity, which has been preserved thanks to a long period of independence, lasting practically until present times. Ethiopia is truly a land of contrasts and extremes; a land of remote and wild places. Some of the highest and most stunning places on the African continent are found here, such as the jaggedly carved Simien Mountains, one of UNESCO’s World Heritage Sites and one of the lowest place on earth the hot but fascinating Danakil Depression, with its sulphur fumaroles and lunar-like landscape. Ethiopia is old; old beyond all imaginations Ethiopia known as cradle of human kind, it is almost certain that human beings and their hominid ancestors evolved in the eastern zone of the Rift Valley: Lucy, our most distant ancestor, who lived 3.2 million years ago, was found in the rift Valley region a place called Hadar. As Abyssinia, its culture and traditions date back over 3,000 years.
There are three most regular ethnic groups that have had a preponderant situation in the national history Amhara, Tigray and Oromo.Other plentiful ethnic groups like Afar, Guraghe ,Sidamo, wolayita and several animistic Tribes dwelling in the western and southern territories correspondingly Align the Omo River .
The main religions in Ethiopia are Christianity, Islam, Catholic and Protestant. Ethiopia is a predominantly Christian country and the majority of Christians are Orthodox Tewahedo Christians, who belong to the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. There are a minority of Christians who are Roman Catholic or Protestant. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church is headed by a patriarch and is related to the communion of the Coptic Orthodox Church.
The Ethiopian currency is called Birr and is issued by the National Bank of Ethiopia. One Birr is made up of 100 cents. The Bank notes are in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 50, and 100 Birr and the coins are in denominations of 1,5, 10, 25 and 50 cents.
Ethiopia is one of the tropical zone laying between the Equator. There are four main kinds of climates in Ethiopia called Dega.Weyinadega ,Kolla and Berha. Dega is cold zone which is 2440 Meters above hight and the tempreture will be about 16 degree Celsius. Weyinadega is a medium weather condition not to cold or hot in between of two. includes the highlands areas of 1830 – 2440 meters in height and the average temperature will be about 22 degree Celsius. Kola is the hot zone which is below 1830 meters and the temperature is about 22 degree Celsius. Bereha is the dessert area which is below 125 meters and 16 Degree Celsius.
- Bega (winter) – December, January and February are the dry season with frost in morning specially in January.
- Kiremt (summer) – June, July and August are the summer season. Heavy rain falls in these three months.
- Tseday (spring) – September, October and November are the spring season sometime known as the harvest season.
- Belg (Autumn) – March, April
Food and Drink The Ethiopian national dish is called wat. It is a hot spicy stew accompanied by injera . Teff is unique to the country and is grown on the Ethiopian highlands. And also the souse called wat made from different vegetables and flour of chickpeas called shiro. There are many varieties of wat, chicken, beef, lamb, vegetables, lentils, and ground split peas stewed with hot spice called berbere(red Chilli). There are locally produced beverages called tella and tej, which are served and drunk on major religious festivals, occasions and holydays. Tella and tej are also sold by numerous traditional bars.
There are 90 individual languages of Ethiopia, from those Amharic, Tigrna and Ormifa are mostly used by Natives and Amharic is the legislative national working language. most significant areas of Ethiopian culture is its literature, which is represented predominantly by translations from ancient Greek and Hebrew religious texts into the ancient language Ge’ez, modern Amharic and Tigrigna languages.Ge’ez is one of the most ancient languages in the world and is still used today by the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church.
The Ethiopian calendar is having a year of 13 months, 365 days and 366 days in a leap year every fourth year and it is much prejudiced by the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, which follows its ancient calendar set of laws and beliefs. The Ethiopian calendar is always seven years and eight months following the Gregorian and Eastern Orthodox Church calendars during September and December and eight years and four months behind during January and August.
Ethiopia is located in northeast Africa, in the area known as ‘The Horn of Africa’. It is delimited by Eritrea, Sudan, South Sudan, Kenya, Somalia, the self-proclaimed nationalist country of Somaliland, and Djibouti. on all sides of an area of 1,104,300 sq km the central area is a enormous highland region of volcanic rock forming a watered, temperate zone surrounded by hot, arid, inhospitable desert. The Great Rift Valley (which starts in Palestine, runs down the Red Sea and diagonally southwest through Ethiopia. Within the country there is a huge diversity in altitude. The highest point is at Ras Dashen in the Simien Mountains, which at 4543m (14905 ft) is Africa’s 10th tallest mountain. The lowest point is inside the Danakil Depression which reaches 125m (410ft) below sea level.